Fare Collection Systems
The construction of fare collection systems in public transport is based on two elements:
Fare collection strategy defines the general approach to tariffs and the collection of fares and includes:
Rules to calculate the fare (fixed or differentiated);
Application of discounts;
Rules for alterations, etc.
Payment technology includes:
Means of payment (cash, tokens, paper tickets, magnetic tickets, etc.);
Distribution of the means of payment (pre-journey sales, driver sales);
Payment control system (closed system controlling entry, open system, etc.).
The first thing to consider when creating a fare collection system is that if there is a possibility not to pay for a journey, then passengers will not pay. The use of conductors for fare collection is not effective for many reasons - "the human factor".
The most effective way to increase fare collection is to require advance payment before boarding and the use of an automated fare collection system (AFCS).
AFCS has two basic advantages: the automation of ticket sales, and detailed accounting and statistical data about the transportation of passengers.
AFCS largely eliminates non-paying passengers and for that reason alone increases fare collection.